Mechanisms of
Sperm Motility:
Dr. Charles Lindemann
Dr. Lindemann's Publications
Note: Clicking the author's link will take you to the abstract on All links open in a new window.
  Lindemann, C.B. and K. A. Lesich. (2016). Functional anatomy of the mammalian sperm flagellum. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 73: (11) 652-669. doi:10.1002/cm.21338. Epub ahead of print October 21, 2016.
  Lesich, K.A, dePinho, T.G. Pelle, D.W. and C.B. Lindemann. (2016).Mechanics of the eukaryotic flagellar axoneme: Evidence for structural distortion during bending. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 73:(5) 233-45. doi:10.1002/cm.21296 Epub ahead of print April 26, 2016.
  Lindemann, C.B. and K.A. Lesich. (2015) The geometric clutch at 20: stripping gears or gaining traction? Reproduction150(2) R-45-53.
  Lesich, K.A., dePinho, T.G., Dang, L. and C.B. Lindemann. (2014) Ultrastructural evidence that motility changes caused by vatiations in ATP, Mg2+ and ADP correlate to conformational changes in reacitvated bull sperm axonemes. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 71: 649-61.
  Lindemann, C.B., dePinho, T.G., and K.A. Lesich. (2014) The physiological role of ADP and Mg2+ in maintaining a stable beat cycle in bull sperm. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 71:638-48.
  Lesich, K.A. dePinho, T.G. Dionne, B.J. and C.B. Lindemann. The effects of Ca2+ and ADP on dynein switching during the beat cycle of reactivated bull sperm models. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 71: 611-27.
  Lesich, K.A., C.B. Kelsch, K.L. Ponichter, B.J. Dionne, L. Dang and C.B. Lindemann. (2012) The calcium response of mouse sperm flagella: Role of calcium ions in the regulation of dynein activity. Biology of Reproduction 86(4):105.
  Lindemann C.B. (2011) Experimental evidence for the geometric clutch hypothesis. Current Topics in Developmental Biology 95: 1-31.
  Lesich, K.A., Z. Zhang, C. Kelsch, K. Ponichter, J.F. Strauss III and C.B. Lindemann (2010) Functional Deficiencies and a Reduced Response to Calcium in the Flagellum of Mouse Sperm Lacking SPAG16L.  Biology of Reproduction 82: 736-744.
  C.B. Lindemann and K.A. Lesich (2010) Flagellar and ciliary beating: The proven and the possible. Journal of Cell Science 123:519-528.
  Lindemann C.B. (2009)  Heart of the beat (the flagellar beat, that is) Biophysical Journal 97: 2865-6.
  Lindemann C.B. and Lesich K.A. (2009) Detergent-extracted models for the study of cilia or flagella. Methods in Molecular Biology 586:337-53.
  Pelle D.W., C.J. Brokaw, K.A. Lesich and C.B. Lindemann (2009) Mechanical properties of the passive sea urchin flagellum. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 66:721-735.
  Lorch D.P., C.B. Lindemann and A.J. Hunt (2008) The motor activity of mammalian axonemal dynein studied in situ on doublet microtubules Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 65:487-494.
  Lesich, K.A., D.W. Pelle and C.B. Lindemann. (2008) Insights into the mechanism of ADP action on flagellar motility derived from studies on bull sperm. Biophysical Journal 95:472-482.
  Lindemann C.B. and Mitchell D. R. (2007) Evidence for Axonemal Distortion During the Flagellar Beat of Chlamydomonas. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 64:580-589.
  Lindemann C.B. (2007) The Geometric Clutch as a working hypothesis for future research on cilia and flagella. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1101:477-493.
  Lindemann C.B., L.J. Macauley and K.A. Lesich (2005) The counterbend phenomenon in dynein-disabled rat sperm flagella and what it reveals about the interdoublet elasticity. Biophysical Journal 89:1165-74.
  Lindemann C.B. (2004) Testing the geometric clutch hypothesis. Biology of the Cell 96:681-90.
  Schmitz-Lesich K.A. and C.B. Lindemann (2004) Direct measurement of the passive stiffness of rat sperm and implications to the mechanism of the calcium response. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 59:169-79.
  Lindemann, C.B. and A. J. Hunt (2003) Does axonemal dynein push, pull, or oscillate? Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 56:237-44.
  C.B. Lindemann (2002) Geometric Clutch model version 3: The role of the inner and outer arm dyneins in the ciliary beat. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 52:242-254.
  Moritz, M.J., K.A. Schmitz and C.B. Lindemann (2001) Measurement of the force and torque produced in the calcium response of reactivated rat sperm flagella. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 49:33-40.
  Lindemann, C.B. and K.A Schmitz (2001) Detergent-extracted models for the study of cilia or flagella in Cytoskeleton Methods and Protocols Edited by R.H. Gavin Humana Press, New Jersey. Methods in Molecular Biology 161:241-252.
  Schmitz, K.A., D.L. Holcomb-Wygle, D.O. Oberski, and C.B. Lindemann (2000) Measurement of the force produced by an intact bull sperm flagellum in isometric arrest and estimation of the dynein stall force. Biophysical Journal 79:468-478.
  Holcomb-Wygle, D.L., K.A. Schmitz, and C.B. Lindemann (1999) The flagellar beat of bull sperm arrests when t-force is reduced: a prediction of the Geometric Clutch Hypothesis is confirmed by micromanipulation experiments. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 44:177-189.
  Lindemann, C.B. and K.S. Kanous (1997) A model for flagellar motility. International Review of Cytology 173:1-72.
  Lindemann, C.B (1996) Functional significance of the outer dense fibers of mammalian sperm examined by computer simulation with the geometric clutch model. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 34:258-270.
  Bird, Z., R. Hard, K.S. Kanous and C.B. Lindemann (1996) Interdoublet sliding in bovine spermatozoa: Its relationship to flagellar motility and the action of inhibitory agents. Journal of Structural Biology 116:418-428.
  Lindemann, C.B. and K.S. Kanous (1995) "Geometric Clutch" hypothesis of axonemal function: key issues and testable predictions. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 31:1-8.
  Lindemann, C.B., J.M. Walker and K.S. Kanous (1995) Ni2+ inhibition induces asymmetry in axonemal functioning and bend initiation of bull sperm. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 30:8-16.
  Lindemann, C.B (1994) A "Geometric Clutch" hypothesis to explain oscillations of the axoneme of cilia and flagella. Journal of Theoretical Biology 168:175-189.
  Lindemann, C.B. (1994) A model of flagellar and ciliary functioning which uses the forces transverse to the axoneme as the regulator of dynein activation. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 29:141-154.
  K.S. Kanous, C. Casey, and Lindemann, C.B. (1993) Inhibition of microtubule sliding by Ni2+ and Cd2+; evidence for a differential response of certain microtubule pairs within the bovine sperm axoneme. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 26:66-76.
  Lindemann, C.B., A. Orlando and K.S. Kanous (1992) The flagellar beat of rat sperm is organized by the interaction of two functionally distinct populations of dynein bridges with a stable central axonemal partition.Journal of Cell Science Jun;102:249-60.
  Lindemann, C.B., T.K. Gardner, E. Westbrook, K.S. Kanous (1991) The calcium-induced curvature reversal of rat sperm is potentiated by cAMP and inhibited by anti-calmodulin. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 20:316-24.
  Lindemann, C.B., J.S. Goltz, K.S. Kanous, T.K. Gardner, P. Olds-Clarke (1990) Evidence for an increased sensitivity to Ca2+ in the flagella of sperm from tw32/+mice. Molecular Reproduction and Development 26:66-77
  Lindemann C.B. and K.S. Kanous (1989) Regulation of mammalian sperm motility. Archives of Andrology 23:1-22.
  Lindemann, C.B., J.S. Goltz, T.K. Gardner and K.S. Kanous (1988) The interaction of pH and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate on activation of motility in Triton X-100 extracted bull sperm. Biological Reproduction 39:1129-36.
  Lindemann, C.B., J.A. O'Brien and F.J. Giblin (1988) An investigation of the effectiveness of certain antioxidants in preserving the motility of reactivated bull sperm models. Biological Reproduction 38:114-20
  Lindemann, C.B. and J.S. Goltz (1988) Calcium regulation of flagellar curvature and swimming pattern in Triton X-100 extracted rat sperm. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 10:420-31
  Lindemann, C.B., J.S. Goltz and K.S. Kanous (1987) Regulation of activation state and flagellar wave form in epididymal rat sperm: evidence for the involvement of both Ca2+ and cAMP. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 8:324-32
  Lindemann, C.B., M. Lipton and R. Shlafer (1983) The interaction of cAMP with modeled bull sperm. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3:199-210
  Lindemann, C.B., M. Fisher and M. Lipton (1982) A comparative study of the effects of freezing and frozen storage on intact and demembranated bull spermatozoa. Cryobiology 19:20-8
  Lindemann, C.B., I. Fentie and R. Rikmenspoel (1980) A selective effect of Ni2+ on wave initiation in bull sperm flagella. Journal of Cell Biology 87:420-6
  Lindemann, C.B. (1978) A cAMP-induced increase in the motility of demembranated bull sperm models. Cell 13:9-18
  Lindemann, C.B. and I. R. Gibbons (1975) Adenosine triphosphate induced motilty and sliding of filaments in mammalian sperm extracted with Triton X-100. Journal of Cell Biology 65:147-62
  Lindemann, C.B., W.G. Rudd and R. Rikmenspoel (1973) The stiffness of the flagella of impaled bull sperm. Biophysics Journal 13:437-48
  Lindemann, C.B., A.C. Jacklet, S.E. Oriss and R. Rikmenspoel (1973) Control of bull sperm motility. Effects of viscosity, KCN and thiourea. Journal of Mechanochemical Cell Motility 2:7-24
  Lindemann, C.B. and R. Rikmenspoel (1972) Sperm flagellar motion maintained by ADP. Experimental Cell Research 73:255-9
  Lindemann, C.B. and R. Rikmenspoel (1972) Sperm flagella: autonomous oscillations of the contractile system. Science 175:337-8
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